Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC), is a water-soluble inorganic polymer between AlCI3 and Al(OH)3, its general formula is [Al2(OH)nCl6-nLm], of which m represents the degree of polymerization and n represents the degree of neutrality of PAC products. This product has strong bridge adsorption performance. During the hydrolysis process, condensation, adsorption, precipitation as well as other physical and chemical processes also occurs at the same time.
The fundamental difference between poly aluminium chloride and traditional inorganic coagulants is that the traditional inorganic coagulants is low molecular crystal salt, but the structure of poly aluminium chloride is composed of polycarboxyl complex with variable morphology, it has high speed of flocculating and precipitating, suitable for wide PH range, no corrosive to pipeline equipment, obvious water purification effect, it can effectively remove chromaticness, Suspended Solids(SS), Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand(BOD) and such heavy metal ions as arsenic and mercury in the water. This product is widely used in drinking water, industrial water and wastewater treatment field.
This product is compound mainly by imidazoline quaternary ammonium salt with some other corrosion additives, surfactants, etc. It has good corrosion resistance, good solubility, low emulsifying tendency and can be used in combination with many other chemical agents. It can inhibit both uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion It is an ideal corrosion inhibitor for water injection system in oil field.
It is suitable for corrosion prevention of sewage treatment and closed water injection system and dissolved pipeline in high mineralization oil field.
Orange-yellow to reddish brown liquid
Condensation point ℃ ≤
Soluble in water
Corrosion rate，mm/a ≤
The concentration used is usually 50-100 PPM.
Package and Storage
200kg plastic lined iron drum or 25kg plastic drum package.
Store in a cool, dry place indoors with a shelf life of one year.
Pure water, clean water or pure water for short, is a pure, clean, do not contain impurities or bacteria in the water, in accord with hygienic standards for drinking water water as raw water, by electrodialysis method, ion exchange method, reverse osmosis, distillation and other appropriate, processing method, the seal in the container, and do not contain any additives, colorless, transparent, can be directly drinkable. The space water that sells on the market, distilled water belongs to pure water. Sometimes the word is also used with distilled water or rainwater from a chemical laboratory.
The metal element index stipulates the content of lead, arsenic and copper in the standard, and lead and arsenic shall not exceed 0.1mg/L, which mainly comes from the environment affected by human activities, including soil and river pollution. As lead, arsenic is poisonous and harmful elements, but by respiratory or digestive tract into the body and accumulation in the body, the lead content in the blood is 0.6 ~ 0.8 mg/L can damage the internal organs, and arsenic compounds will cause poisoning, so their levels should be as small as possible, and copper in the standard stipulated in the must not exceed 1.0 mg/L, while copper is not harmful elements, but it is not the more the better material, for pure water, one of the symbols of is to measure the degree of purity.
ORGANIC INDEX The organic index is mainly embodied in the national standard for the chloroform and carbon tetrachloride content of the provisions. Because the quality problem of barreled pure water providers in karachi is mainly concentrated on microorganism detection exceeding the standard, in order to solve this problem, many manufacturers are not from the production process, quality management, but only through the quantity to try to solve the problem of microorganism pollution of pure water, commonly used disinfectant for chlorine disinfectant such as chlorine dioxide. Barreled pure water can produce some new organic halogenates due to chlorination disinfection, the main components are trichloromethane (chloroform) and carbon tetrachloride and a small amount of monochloromethane, monobromodichloromethane, dibromodichloromethane and bromoform, etc., collectively known as halogenated alkyl. After detection, the halogenated alkanes content in the chlorinated drinking water and tap water is generally higher than that in the source water. Among them, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride are of high content, which is harmful to human body. If drinking chloroform and carbon tetrachloride for a long time, the purified water exceeding the standard will lead to liver poisoning or even canceration. In order to protect the health of consumers, the national standard gb17324-1998 clearly stipulates that the content of trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride in drinking pure water shall not exceed 0.02mg/L and 0.001mg/L respectively.
BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR In the national standards, the microbial indexes include the total number of colonies, coliform bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, molds and yeasts. From the detection of purified water in recent years, microbial indicators are one of the indicators that are easy to exceed the standard. This is due to microbial contamination in the production, processing, transportation and marketing of purified water. In production and processing, workers do not pay attention to personal hygiene, recycling bottles cleaning, disinfection is not strict, and even some manufacturers in order to reduce costs, recycling caps used again, due to the deformation of recycling caps, caused by the bottle mouth is not sealed may cause microbial pollution. The excess of microorganisms reflects the degree of water pollution. Among them escherichia coli achieves certain index, can cause human body diarrhoea. Pathogens include salmonella, shigella, staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus b. Salmonella, shigella contaminated water can cause acute intestinal infections, diarrhea, fever and other symptoms; The enterotoxin produced by staphylococcus aureus can cause poisoning, acute gastrointestinal symptoms and even life threatening. Streptococcus b is the main pathogen causing suppurative inflammation in human body. Mold and yeast widely distributed in nature, in the process of the growth of mold in the breeding in food absorb nutrients to the food in the food nutrition value is reduced, and odor, influence the sense of food, especially mould to grow in the process of producing toxins can cause chronic poisoning, severe cases can lead to cancer.
The content of nitrite is another important indicator in the national standard health index. Nitrite mainly comes from the nitrate in the soil near the water source, and the nitrate content is higher in the saline-alkali land, the nitrate fertilizer applied in large quantities and the soil short of molybdenum. Nitrite shall not exceed 0.002mg/L in the national standard.
THE PRODUCTION MECHANISM In the production process of high purity water, anions and cations in water can be removed by electrodialysis, reverse osmosis and ion exchange resin technology. In general, the particles in water can be removed by ultrafiltration, membrane filtration and other technologies. Bacteria in water, at present, the domestic use of medicine or ultraviolet lamp irradiation or ozone sterilization method to remove; Water TOC is generally activated carbon, reverse osmosis treatment. In the field of high pure water application, the purity of water is directly related to the performance, reliability and threshold voltage of devices, leading to low breakdown, defects, and affecting the few children life of materials. Therefore, high pure water requires high purity and precision.
Natural dissolved gases in water mainly include O2, CO2, SO2 and a small amount of CH4, radon and chlorine. In the production process of high purity water, it is also necessary to remove such gases. In order to effectively remove impurities, some chemical fungicides, such as formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite, were added in the process of producing high purity water. These are some of the reasons why high purity water is not drinkable.
So what is pure water? Pure water refers to the water quality pure, does not contain any harmful substances and bacteria, such as organic pollutants, inorganic salt, any additives and various impurities, effectively avoid the invasion of the human body all kinds of germs, its advantage is that can be safely effectively supplement moisture to the body, strong solubility, strong affinity to the human body cells, therefore, it can promote metabolism.
It is water produced after deep treatment by ion exchange, reverse osmosis, fine filtration and other appropriate physical processing methods. Under normal circumstances, in the production process of pure water, only 50% to 75% of the source water is used, that is to say, 1 kg of tap water or groundwater can only produce about 0.4 kg of pure water, and the remaining 0.6 kg of water cannot be used as drinking water, can only be used for other purposes.
Based on science development and technology innovation and dedicated to the improvement of water environment, our company is a high-tech environmental protection engineering company specialized in the research and development of water treatment equipment and technology, engineering contracting and the installation as well as the commission of the mechanical and electrical equipment. Besides, our company is the earliest and biggest high-tech environmental protection chemical enterprise dedicated in comprehensively researching and developing the environmental-friendly water treatment agents in China. The company is mainly engaged in the installation, modification as well as improvement of EPC projects regarding to water treatment in karachi in the fields of electric power, industry, chemical industry, food processing, urban life and so forth.
Research and development and introduction and application of foreign top technology
Based on science development and technology innovation and dedicated to the improvement of water environment, our company is a high-tech environmental protection engineering company specialized in the research and development of water treatment equipment and technology, engineering contracting and the installation as well as the commission of the mechanical and electrical equipment. Besides, our company is the earliest and biggest high-tech environmental protection chemical enterprise dedicated in comprehensively researching and developing the environmental-friendly water treatment agents in China. The company is mainly engaged in the installation, modification as well as improvement of EPC projects regarding to water treatment companies in pakistan in the fields of electric power, industry, chemical industry, food processing, urban life and so forth.
Research and development and introduction and application of foreign top technology
CENTRAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT The objective of waste water treatment is to reduce the concentrations of specific pollutants to the level at which the discharge of the effluent will not adversely affect the environment or pose a health threat. Moreover, reduction of these constituents need only be to some required level. Although water can technically be completely purified by distillation and deionization, this is unnecessary and may actually be detrimental to the receiving water. Fish and other organisms cannot survive in deionized or distilled water.
For any given wastewater in a specific location, the degree and type of treatment are variables that require engineering decisions. Often the degree of treatment depends on the assimilative capacity of the receiving water. DO sag curves can indicate how much BOD must be removed from wastewater so that the DO of the receiving water is not depressed too far. The amount of BOD that must be removed is an effluent standard (discussed more fully in Chapter 11) and dictates in large part the type of wastewater treatment required.
Microorganisms in circulating water of power plant bring great harm to cooling water system. It not only affects the effect of heat transfer, but also would lead to corrosion of heat exchanger, in seriously would result in shutdown. Now the plant uses the bactericide to treat with the microbial fouling generally, and a variety of fungicides have been developed. However, the long-term usage of fungicide will make the bacteria appear resistance, which greatly limits the application of such measures. This paper overviewed different resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas, sulfate-reducing bacteria, iron bacteria and slime forming bacteria in the microbial fouling to bactericide and put forward some solutions.
Benzalkonium Chloride is one of the Quaternary ammonium class of Cationic surfactants, belonging to nonoxidizing biocide. It is widely used as a disinfectant in the Hospital, Livestock and Personal Hygiene sectors
Isothiazolinones is a kind of fungicidal with properties of broad spectrum, high efficiency, low toxicity and non-oxidative, it is the ideal biocidal in industrial circulating cool water system and in wastewater treatment in oilfield, papermaking, pesticide, cutting oil, leather, detergent and cosmetics etc..
SDIC is water soluble, it has properties of high effective, instant effective, wide range and safety. SDIC has strong fungicide effect, even at dosage of 20ppm, the fungicide ratio can reach to 99%.
TH-409 is composed of cationic surfactant, penetrating agent and dispersant. TH-409 has the advantages of high efficiency, wide range, sterilization, fungicidal, sludge stripping and cleaning
After the emulsion formed from crude oil containing water, its viscosity, density and freezing point increases, this makes the liquidity of crude oil worse, oil well production load rising and the energy consumption increasing, at the same time, the storage and transportation energy consumption also getting higher.
A summary treatment of crude oil follows. For full treatment, see petroleum, petroleum production, and petroleum refining.
Crude oil is a mixture of comparatively volatile liquid hydrocarbons (compounds composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon), though it also contains some nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. Those elements form a large variety of complex molecular structures, some of which cannot be readily identified. Regardless of variations, however, almost all crude oil ranges from 82 to 87 percent carbon by weight and 12 to 15 percent hydrogen by weight.
Crude oils are customarily characterized by the type of hydrocarbon compound oil that is most prevalent in them: paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Paraffins are the most common hydrocarbons in crude oil; certain liquid paraffins are the major constituents of gasoline (petrol) and are therefore highly valued. Naphthenes are an important part of all liquid refinery products, but they also form some of the heavy asphaltlike residues of refinery processes. Aromatics generally constitute only a small percentage of most crudes. The most common aromatic in crude oil is benzene, a popular building block in the petrochemical industry. And Grill